Month: November 2006
This is the biography of Karl Marx, Father of communism, a great philosopher, foreshighted and very much intellectual person of his time. He was not only the leader of communist, he was the inspiration for all the people arround the world. Plz don’t think that i have posted his biography to lobby on the side of communist party. I would like to tell you frrankly about me that i am the supporter of truth, i am the supporter of development, i am the supporter of humanism, i am the supporter of freedom. I don’t like to be recognized with a particular party’s or principle’s. I have my own principle, own life style and i only like to walk on that way where my heart and soul want to take me. It is only begining, i have planned to post such biography of other top most leaders arround the world including the leaders from Nepal like B. P. Koirala, Madhan Bhandari etc. also. I hope that you will get something important from here.
Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818 in the city of Trier, Germany. His father was a lawyer who came from a long line of Rabbis, but had changed his faith to Protestantism in order to keep his job. Karl Marx went to the University of Bonn to study law when he was 17 years old. Here he became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, whose father, Baron von Westphalen, influenced Marx to read Romantic literature and Saint-Simonian politics. Only a year later, Marx was moved by his father to the University of Berlin where he studied Hegelianism, influenced by Ludwig Feuerbach and other Hegelians. He admired Hegel’s dialectics and belief in historical inevitability, but Marx questioned the idealism and abstract thought of philosophy and maintained his belief that reality lies in the material base of economics. In distinct contrast to Hegel’s concentration on the state in his philosophy of law, Marx saw civil society as the sphere to be studied in order to understand the historical development of humankind. In 1841 Marx earned his doctorate at Jena with his work on the materialism and atheism of Greek atomists.
It was difficult for Marx to find publishers because of his radical political views, so he moved to Cologne, which was known to house a strong liberal opposition movement. The liberal group the Cologne Circle published a paper by Marx defending the freedom of the press in their newspaper The Rhenish Gazette (in 1942 he was made the editor of the paper). In Cologne Marx met Moses Hess, a radical who organized socialist meetings, which Marx attended. At these meetings Marx learned of the struggles of the German working-class. Based on the information he gathered from the members present at the meetings, Marx wrote an article on the poverty of the Mosel wine-farmers in which he was highly critical of the government. When the article was published in 1843, the Prussian authorities banned The Rhenish Gazette and threatened Marx with his arrest. Marx married his fiancé and they fled together to Paris. Here he took a position as editor of a political journal called Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (Franco-German Annals) that was designed to connect French socialism and radical Hegelianism. Although the journal only lived as long as one issue, it was a valuable opportunity for Marx. Through it he met his life-long friend Friedrich Engels, a contributor to the journal. Other prominent contributors included his old mentor from Berlin, Bruno Bauer, and the Russian anarchist Michael Bakunin.
While in Paris, Marx became a communist, and worked primarily on studying political economy and the history of the French Revolution. He wrote a series of papers known as ÷konomisch-philosophische Manuskripte aus dem Jahre (Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, 1844), however they were not published until the 1930s. The Manuscripts are influenced by Feuerbach and outline a humanist idea of communism. Marx contrasts capitalist society, and an alienated nature of labor, with communist society, in which human beings in cooperative production develop their nature freely. In 1844 Marx reviewed Bruno Bauer’s book On the Jewish Question. More than a review, Marx used the article to critique the continued influence of religion over politics, and propose a revolutionary change to the structure of European society.
In 1845 Marx was expelled from France by Guizot. He fled with Engels to Brussels where they stayed for three years with intermittent trips to England to visit Engels’ family who had cotton-spinning interests in Manchester. While in Brussels Marx wrote a piece against the idealistic socialism of P.J. Proudhon called The Poverty of Philosophy. He also worked on his materialist conception of history, and developed the manuscript that would come to be named The German Ideology when it was published after his death. This paper argues that the nature of an individual is dependent upon the material conditions that determine his production. It is a historical study of modes of production through the ages, and in it Marx predicts the collapse of industrial capitalism and the advancement of communism. Marx joined the Communist League at this time, which was an organization of German émigré workers centered in London. Marx and Engels became the major theoretical force of the League, and at a conference in 1847 they were commissioned to write a declaration of the League’s position. The hope was that the Manifest der kommunistischen Partei (The Communist Manifesto) would inspire social revolution, and no sooner was it published than the 1848 revolutions broke out across Europe. This work marks a turn in Marx’s writing from appealing to natural rights as justification for social reform, to indicating that the laws of history would inevitably lead to the power of the working class. The Manifesto distinguishes communism from other movements, proposes specific social reforms, and includes a description of the struggles between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. It also explicitly encourages workers to unite in revolution against the existing regimes.
The panic caused by the February revolution of 1848 caused the Belgian government to expel Marx from Brussels. He was invited by the French provisional government to return to Paris. From there, he returned to Cologne with some friends to start the newspaper the Neue Rheinische Zeitung. The government there attempted to shut down the paper through legal means, and finally succeeded by finding pretexts to expel the editors. Marx and his friends were expelled after the revolts of May 1849, and the newspaper’s last edition was June 1849. Marx had to return to Paris, but he was expelled again immediately, and moved on to London, which would be his final home.
In London Marx rejoined with the Communist League, confident that there would be further revolutionary action in Europe. He proceeded to write two pamphlets about the 1848 revolution in France and its effects, titled, The Class Struggles in France and The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. He felt that new revolution would only be possible if there was to be a new crisis, and he hoped to uncover what would cause this crisis. He spent a large amount of his time in the British Museum studying political economy toward this end. For the first part of the 1850s Marx, Jenny, and their four children lived in an impoverished state in a three room flat in London’s Soho. The couple would have two more children, but only three in all would survive. The family survived primarily on gifts from Engels whose own income came from the family business in Manchester. Marx also earned a small amount from articles he wrote as the foreign correspondent for the New York Daily Tribune. In 1864 Marx and Engels together founded the International Workingmen’s Association, which would finally break up due to disagreements between Marx and the anarchist Mikhail Babuknin.
By 1857 Marx had written an 800-page manuscript which was to become Das Kapital (Capital). This is his major work on political economy, capital, landed property, the state, wage labor, foreign trade and the world market. In the early part of the 1860s he took a break from his work on Das Kapital to work on Theories of Surplus Value, a three-volume work. This text discusses specific theories of political economy, primarily those of Adam Smith and David Ricardo. In 1867 Marx published volume I of Das Kapital, an analysis of the capitalist process of production, with an elaboration on his version of labor theory value, surplus value, and exploitation, that he predicted would lead to a falling profit rate and the collapse of industrial capitalism. Marx continued to work on Volumes II and III of Das Kapital for the rest of his life, even though they were essentially finished in the late 1860s. Engels would publish the last two volumes after Marx’s death. By 1871 Marx’s daughter Eleanor, who was 17 at the time, was helping her father with his work. She had been taught at home by Marx himself, and grew up with a rich understanding of the capitalist system which would allow her to play an important part in the future of the British labor movement.
Marx’s health rapidly declined during the last ten years of his life and he was unable to work at the same impressive pace he had set in his early years. He still paid close attention to contemporary politics, especially concerning Germany and Russia, and he often offered his comments. In his Critique of the Gotha Programme he critiqued the actions of his admirers Karl Liebknecht and August Bebel, disagreeing with their compromises with state socialism in the interest of a united socialist party. He indicated in his letters to Vera Zasulich of this time that he imagined it could be possible for Russia to bypass a capitalist stage of development and move directly to communism by basing its economy on common ownership of land characterized by the village. In 1881 both Marx and his wife became ill. Marx had a swollen liver, and survived, but Jenny died on December 2, 1881. In January 1883 Marx was deeply saddened by the loss of his eldest daughter to cancer of the bladder. On March 14, 1883 Marx was found having passed away in his armchair. He is buried at Highgate Cemetery in London.
It never drifted as winds do
Never faded like the waning moon
It advances like the sun at noon
Withstanding pain, it still pursues
Her love for him drifts as rivers do
Flows continuously in each foolish beat
Let eons pass; Still, it deepens some feet
Unfathomable deepness, I presume?
She whispered within her heart,
“Let it be still, oh, young Heart!
Still, let it be!
Those brown eyes shall
Never gaze deeply at me.?”
Forbear this not, nevertheless!
It never drifted as winds do
Never faded like the waning moon
The turbulent the current of water is,
The stronger her feelings grow.
Immeasurable love?… Yes, I presume.
Like a choral music sung by few
Withstanding pain, it still pursues
Love, love, as it drifts within
Young at heart, the struggle begins
Love is a flower
Hate is thorns
Love is an aroma
Hate is a stench
Love is tender
Hate is morose
Love is facile
Hate is dense
Love is solace
Hate is a struggle
Love is belief
Hate is anguish
Love is splendour
Hate is bleak
Love is elation
Hate is vexation
Love is ailing
Love is celestial
Love wins over
Hate loses all!
Always keep in mind this story.
Once upon a time three friends, Wealth, Success and Love were walked out for visiting the most rural and undeveloped area of the world to know about the status of there people and to help them whatever they could. They walked and walked and walked continue for several months crossing lots of terrible forests, big rivers, strange mountains etc. Finally, they become tired and thought to have a rest around there somewhere. They looked for somebody, but couldn’t find. They started to search village. At last, they became able to find a house in that very strange place. They decided to ask for help in that house. They moved forward to the house. While reaching close to the house, they felt that might be the first house to which they could help. They knocked the door.
In that house there used to live an old couple around 60s. They surprised and very much afraid of the sounds of knocking on their door because that was the only one house around 50 kilometers square area from their house. There used to live no any single person besides them. It had become a long time they hadn’t met any human being. With strong courage, the old man opened the door and wondered seeing three very cute and handsome persons in front of him. He became very much happy and started to ask about them. Those three persons told the old man that they had come there to help them. But they gave only one choice to that couple whether they wanted to keep wealth or success or love, they could only keep a single person.
That old couple went inside to discuss between themselves. At first the husband decided to keep wealth. He thought that they were in that conditions lack of wealth. But at the same time the wife thought that they had to keep success. If we were success in life we shouldn’t have to face such types of difficulties. They discussed a lot but couldn’t come in conclusion. At last, they came out and request to have love at one voice.
By hearing so, those three persons became very much happy and all entered to that house. The couple was very much surprised. They have given only one choice but why all three persons were entered ? They asked about it to those three persons. The wealth and success replied: “If you had requested to keep only wealth or success, then only a single wealth or success would have come to your house but you had requested to have love. Wherever Love goes, we go with him. We can’t live satisfactorily without him. So, now we three are with you”.
I like this story very much so i posted here. I hope that you will also enjoy it and compelled to think about it once a time.
Once upon a time, there was an island where all the feelings lived: Happiness, Sadness, Knowledge, and all of the others, including Love. One day it was announced to the feelings that the island would sink, so all constructed boats and left. Except for Love.
Love was the only one who stayed. Love wanted to hold out until the last possible moment.
When the island had almost sunk, Love decided to ask for help.
Richness was passing by Love in a grand boat. Love said,
“Richness, can you take me with you?”
Richness answered, “No, I can’t. There is a lot of gold and silver in my boat. There is no place here for you.”
Love decided to ask Vanity who was also passing by in a beautiful vessel. “Vanity, please help me!”
“I can’t help you, Love. You are all wet and might damage my boat,” Vanity answered.
Sadness was close by so Love asked, “Sadness, let me go with you.”
“Oh . . . Love, I am so sad that I need to be by myself!”
Happiness passed by Love, too, but she was so happy that she did not even hear when Love called her.
Suddenly, there was a voice, “Come, Love, I will take you.” It was an elder. So blessed and overjoyed, Love even forgot to ask the elder where they were going. When they arrived at dry land, the elder went her own way. Realizing how much was owed the elder,
Love asked Knowledge, another elder, “Who Helped me?”
“It was Time,” Knowledge answered.
“Time?” asked Love. “But why did Time help me?”
Knowledge smiled with deep wisdom and answered, “Because only Time is capable of understanding how valuable Love is.”